Wireless Sensor Network Projects

Table of Contents
As many Engineering background students want to take up Wireless Sensor Network Projects, we will be having an overview of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in every possible aspect along with some project ideas to help those students.

What is a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)?

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a simple wireless-based network that doesn’t require infrastructure and it is applied in several wireless-based sensory devices with an ad-hoc type of network configuration. The primary roles of these WSNs are as follows: 

  • It is utilized to track any activities in a considered system.

  • It is utilized to track any physical parameters by integrating with many hardware.

  • It is utilized to track any kind of factors like pressure, temperature, etc in our environment.

What are the Types of Wireless Sensor Networks?

The most common types of WSNs are given below. 

  • Underwater WSNs

  • Mobile WSNs

  • Terrestrial WSNs

  • Underground WSNs

  • Multimedia WSNs

Underwater WSNs

Water is the earth's resource that occupies over seventy per cent of space. This type of Underwater WSNs will be deployed in underwater conditions with several autosomal vehicles and sensor nodes. These autosomal vehicles will be utilized to gather data from the deployed sensory devices in underwater conditions. The sensors deployed will usually be less power restricted battery which doesn’t allow for the recharge or replacement.

Mobile WSNs

As the name suggests, these Mobile WSNs are always mobile (i.e.) it is designed to move on its own in order to manipulate, communicate, and sense various data that got gathered from the deployed sensor nodes. As these types of WSNs offer mobility for data gathering, it is able to cover a vast amount of area than the conventional non-moving WSNs along with the improvisation in terms of energy. 

Terrestrial WSNs

As the name suggests, these Terrestrial WSNs are always deployed in terrestrial lands. These Terrestrial WSNs are utilized for communications taking place in various base stations for efficient data gathering. These WSNs are deployed on a basis of two ways- structured or unstructured way. It is powered with solar alternative power in order to serve as a secondary battery source to overcome all power-based issues. 

Underground WSNs

Unlike the terrestrial WSNs, these types of WSNs are deployed in areas below the terrestrial land, which makes the deployment cost high. These underground WSNs consist of numerous sensing nodes that are hidden underground. This type of WSN has low-grade batteries that possess less capability to recharge. It is not widely used as it has many limitations in the data gathering.

Multimedia WSNs

The Multimedia WSNs are the sensory devices that aim to gather data through the tracking of various environmental parameters by the integration of multimedia equipment like mics and cameras. It gathers data in the formats of image or audio or video depending upon the requirements. The area of deployment is diverse as it can be used in sectors like the military, health care, surveillance, etc. 

Also read : Wireless Sensor Network Projects with Source Code in MATLAB

What are the major elements of a Wireless Sensor Network?

The major elements of a typical WSN are listed one by one. 

  • Sensors- Sensors or Sensory equipment are utilized to record the variables in any environmental conditions to gather the intended data. Signals from these sensors will get transformed into electrical typed signals.

  • Radio Nodes- These Radio Nodes are utilized to gather the data sensed from the sensory equipment and transmit those data to an access point in WLAN mode. It usually comprises a transceiver, microcontroller, power source, and external storage.

  • WLAN Access Point- An access point is established to gather the data that was wirelessly transmitted from the previous element, commonly via the web.

  • Assessment Software- The data that got transmitted from the established access point will be processed with any Assessment Software. The data from this software will be utilized to present the document to the consumer for further data processing. 

What are the various Application sectors of a Wireless Sensor Network?

The possible application sectors of a Wireless Sensor Network are listed one by one. 

  • All kinds of Military-oriented utilizations

  • All kinds of Internet of Things (IoT) utilizations

  • Agricultural development 

  • Tracking and Monitoring to maintain security and identify all possible threats

  • Measuring the level of noise in a surrounding

  • Measuring Environmental factors like air pressure, temperature, and humidity, 

  • Medical utilizations including but not limited to the diseased person tracking

  • Transportation operations

  • Identification of Landslides

Benefits of Wireless Sensor Networks

The wide utilization of Wireless Sensor Networks are because of the following benefits:

  • It is able to be flexible for any kind of physical splitting.

  • It doesn’t require any wire work.

  • It is applicable for usability in un-feasible locations like the mountains, sea, very deep forest areas, rural areas, etc. 

  • It imparts easier accessibility through its universal display device.

  • It has a lower deployment cost.

  • It has the capability to lodge new equipment irrespective of time.

Research Gaps for Wireless Sensor Network Projects Topics

Though Wireless Sensor Networks impart numerous benefits, it also has the following issues in which various projects could be implemented: 

  • Topology problems

  • Design problems

  • Miscellaneous problems

Topology Problems

The following are the topology problems in WSNs:

  • Coverage Topology

  • Sensor Holes

  • Geographic Routing

Design Problems

The following are the design problems in WSNs:

  • Transmission Media

  • Reduced latency

  • Scalability

  • Coverage issues

  • Fault

Miscellaneous Problems

The following are the miscellaneous problems in WSNs that affects its performance:

  • Outlines for Medium Access

  • Low performing OS & Hardware in WSN

  • Implementation level issues

  • Low-grade Middlewares

  • Bad Wireless Radio Communication

  • Less effective Architecture

  • Reduced Calibration

  • Querying and being database-oriented

  • Improper Network Layer

  • Confinements

  • Out of Sync issues 

  • Improper Transport Layer

  • Improper Data distribution

  • Improper Data gathering

Also read : Arduino Based Mini Projects for ECE

Few Wireless Sensor Network Projects

Some of the Wireless Sensor Network projects topics are discussed below to guide those who desire projects in this area. 

Designing the Smart Agricultural System with LoRa-based WSNs

Smart Agricultural System with LoRa-based WSNs could be designed and deployed for monitoring the various parameters in an agricultural farm to increase the crop productivity.

Energy-aware Resource Delegation for Energy Harvesting in WSNs 

A energy-saving yet effective resource allocating system could be developed to reduce the energy concerns of WSNs. 

Design of Wireless moded Communication Networks using Neutralized Energy WSN with SWIPT 

Effective Wireless moded Communication Networks could be made possible by the neutralization of the energy in WSN with the help of the SWIPT method. 

Augmenting the Lifetime of WSN by LEACH Protocol Improvement

The LEACH Protocol could be improved to augment the lifetime of WSN by lessening the delay time of the packets for the benefit of sectors like agriculture and Health care. 

What is Arduino?

Arduino is an open-sourced electronics-based platform that is built on software and flexible hardware. The Arduino boards are useful for recognizing inputs like light, a Twitter message, a finger, etc. and for the conversion of inputs into intended outputs like motor activation, online publishings, switching on LED, etc.

Few Wireless Sensor Network Projects using Arduino

Some of the Wireless Sensor Network Projects using Arduino are discussed below to guide those who desire these projects. 

Adjusting Bed of a Diseased Person via Image Processing-based Gesture Arduino powered Recognition

The beds of a diseased person in the hospitals could be implemented by designing Arduino powered Recognition system based on the concept of Image processing. 

Arduino powered Wearable Sensing Equipment to Uninterrupted Monitoring Of Heart-related Activities while in Sleep 

An Uninterrupted Monitoring of the heart-related activities during the sleeping time could be achieved by designing an Arduino powered Wearable Sensing Equipment. 

Edge Computing dependent Smart Manhole Covering System towards the Smart City Facility 

To reduce the accidents created because of several manholes, a covering system powered by Arduino could be designed as a smart city facility. 

Prior Management of Quality of Raw Milk by using an Arduino powered Identification System

The quality of raw milk could be managed prior to any adverse effects by using an Arduino powered Identification System that will be able to identify every factor causing the sudden contamination of the raw milk. 

Successful Implementation of Wireless Sensor Network-based Projects

By mere referral to the above topics, no one can finish their projects. So, the engineering-based students should co-ordinate with any expert, who might be your guide or else a project institute, who could help you finish your project successfully.

Final year projects